Mostly length and the context in which they are used. A resume is typically 1-2 pages and is used in business, industry, and government contexts. A CV (Curriculum Vita) can be many pages and is typically used in college and university contexts. Either is fine for this application. You can find a resume template and some tips and suggestions on the Applications Tips + Templates page.
Yes! We do not require you to be a student at one of the institutions listed to apply. If your application is accepted, the program will cover travel expenses to the STROBE institution to which you were accepted.